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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Novel targeted therapeutics: inhibitors of MDM2, ALK and PARP

Yuan Yuan1, Yu-Min Liao2, Chung-Tsen Hsueh1 and Hamid R Mirshahidi1*

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA

2 Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, China

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Journal of Hematology & Oncology 2011, 4:16  doi:10.1186/1756-8722-4-16

Published: 20 April 2011

Abstract

We reviewed preclinical data and clinical development of MDM2 (murine double minute 2), ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) and PARP (poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase) inhibitors. MDM2 binds to p53, and promotes degradation of p53 through ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. JNJ-26854165 and RO5045337 are 2 small-molecule inhibitors of MDM2 in clinical development. ALK is a transmembrane protein and a member of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinases. EML4-ALK fusion gene is identified in approximately 3-13% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Early-phase clinical studies with Crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor, in NSCLC harboring EML4-ALK have demonstrated promising activity with high response rate and prolonged progression-free survival. PARPs are a family of nuclear enzymes that regulates the repair of DNA single-strand breaks through the base excision repair pathway. Randomized phase II study has shown adding PARP-1 inhibitor BSI-201 to cytotoxic chemotherapy improves clinical outcome in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Olaparib, another oral small-molecule PARP inhibitor, demonstrated encouraging single-agent activity in patients with advanced breast or ovarian cancer. There are 5 other PARP inhibitors currently under active clinical investigation.